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阴囊的肿块/疼痛/肿胀dK9宋宝林医生

阴囊的肿块疼痛肿胀Scrotal Lumps Pain蛋疼dK9宋宝林医生

阴囊肿块或疼痛有很多原因。大多数肿块并非癌症,而且很多都不严重。然而,如果在这个区域你有疼痛或有肿块,你总是应该去看医生。dK9宋宝林医生

什么是阴囊?dK9宋宝林医生

阴囊是一个松散的皮肤袋子,挂在男人和男孩的阴茎后面。里面是两个睾丸。睾丸制造雄性激素,睾酮并产生精子(精液)。精子沿睾丸内的很多条管汇集到一条被称为附睾的管内,并存储在那里。然后精子通过另一条叫做输精管的管。输精管将精子输送到阴茎。dK9宋宝林医生

男孩和男人应该知道他们睾丸通常的感觉,所以如果有什么改变,他们会知道的。dK9宋宝林医生

什么原因导致了阴囊的肿块或疼痛?dK9宋宝林医生

阴囊肿胀可能是由于:dK9宋宝林医生

·         内有额外的液体。dK9宋宝林医生

·         异常组织成长。dK9宋宝林医生

·         正常组织变得肿胀,发炎,或硬。dK9宋宝林医生

阴囊肿块的症状是什么?dK9宋宝林医生

症状取决于该问题的原因。可能的症状包括:dK9宋宝林医生

·         注意到那里有个以前没有的肿块。dK9宋宝林医生

·         突然疼痛。dK9宋宝林医生

·         隐隐作痛。dK9宋宝林医生

·         阴囊皮肤发红或发热。dK9宋宝林医生

·         一个或两个睾丸或其周围结构有压痛。dK9宋宝林医生

·         阴囊肿胀。dK9宋宝林医生

·         感觉不适(恶心)或生病了(呕吐)。dK9宋宝林医生

·         有发热,排尿更频繁,或尿中有脓或血(如果是感染的原因)。dK9宋宝林医生

阴囊疼痛或疼痛性肿块的常见原因dK9宋宝林医生

睾丸扭转dK9宋宝林医生

当睾丸在阴囊扭转时,这种情况就称为睾丸扭转。通常需要紧急手术来治疗这种疾病。dK9宋宝林医生

它最常发生在十几岁的男孩。新生儿和年幼儿有时也会发生这个问题。罕见于25岁以上成人,但有时也会发生在中老年人。dK9宋宝林医生

典型症状是迅速发展的严重疼痛 - 在几个小时内,往往会更迅速。疼痛是在受影响的睾丸上,但你也可能会觉得它在肚子(腹部)的中间。受影响的睾丸很快变得压痛,肿胀和发炎。dK9宋宝林医生

附睾睾丸炎和睾丸炎dK9宋宝林医生

附睾睾丸炎是附睾和/或睾丸的炎症。附睾炎是指附睾发炎。睾丸炎是指睾丸发炎。这通常是由于感染,最常见源于尿液感染或性传播感染。它也可以发生在患有腮腺炎的男孩。它常见于15-30岁的男性60岁以上的男性。在青春期之前,它并不多见。dK9宋宝林医生

症状通常发展迅速 - 在一天左右。受影响的附睾和睾丸迅速肿大,而且阴囊也变大、压疼和发红。它可能非常疼痛。如果附睾睾丸炎是并发于其它感染的话,可能还有其他症状。例如:如果你有尿路感染,就有尿痛;如果你有尿道感染,阴茎会有分泌物;等等。伴随感染时,你可能会有高热,而且一般感觉不适。一疗程的抗生素通常会清除感染。通常可完全康复。并发症并不常见。dK9宋宝林医生

鞘膜积血dK9宋宝林医生

鞘膜积血是指围绕着睾丸的血液聚集。这通常是疼痛的,并且可能由外伤引起。dK9宋宝林医生

阴囊无痛性肿块的常见原因dK9宋宝林医生

鞘膜积液dK9宋宝林医生

鞘膜积液是指阴囊内液体的集聚。dK9宋宝林医生

鞘膜积液的大小差别很大。大多数鞘膜积液发生在成年人,而且最常见于40岁以上的男人。鞘膜积液通常是无痛的。大的鞘膜积液可能会因为它们的大小造成不适。有些婴儿出生时就有鞘膜积液。这些在一岁以内未经任何处理通常也会改善。如果12-18月龄后鞘膜积液仍然存在,通常才建议手术。dK9宋宝林医生

腹股沟疝dK9宋宝林医生

疝气是指从腹壁的薄弱点出现一个包块。男性腹股沟组织内有一个小隧道,在他们婴儿时就形成了。这条隧道允许睾丸从腹腔下降入阴囊。肠道组织也可以通过这个隧道,就形成了腹股沟疝。如果你有一个腹股沟疝,可以从腹股沟到阴囊感觉到香肠形肿块。当你躺下时,它可能会消失。这是因为组织沿隧道滑回了它本应在的地方。dK9宋宝林医生

附睾囊肿/精液囊肿dK9宋宝林医生

•附睾囊肿是指在睾丸的顶端生出的一个充满液体的囊。它是良性的(即不是由癌症引起的)。可以感觉到肿块独立于睾丸。40岁左右的男人最容易出现这些囊肿。dK9宋宝林医生

•精液囊肿是指一个感觉像附睾囊肿的囊肿,但它充满了精子(精液)。dK9宋宝林医生

精索静脉曲张dK9宋宝林医生

精索静脉曲张是指在阴囊的聚集了扩大(扩张)的静脉(血管)。它出现在一个睾丸或二个睾丸的近处和上方。精索静脉曲张很常见。约1/7的男性会出现精索静脉曲张 -- 通常是在1525岁之间。精索静脉曲张通常是无痛的,而且通常不引起症状。dK9宋宝林医生

睾丸癌dK9宋宝林医生

睾丸癌是指起自睾丸的癌症。少于4%的阴囊包块结果是癌症。大约有一半的病例发生在35岁以下的男人,但睾丸癌很少会发生在青春期之前。在大多数情况下,首要的症状是注意到一侧睾丸出现肿块。肿块通常是无痛的,但有些人会注意到受影响的睾丸出现一些疼痛或不适。dK9宋宝林医生

阴囊肿胀或疼痛的少见病因dK9宋宝林医生

其他罕见或少见的原因包括:dK9宋宝林医生

·         鳞状细胞癌。这是一种阴囊的皮肤癌。dK9宋宝林医生

·         广泛水肿。这种情况发生在身体内整体上有太多液体。dK9宋宝林医生

·         皮脂腺囊肿。这些是皮下的非癌性肿块。dK9宋宝林医生

·         梅毒。这是一种性传播感染。它有时会引起称为梅毒瘤的质软肿块。dK9宋宝林医生

·         线虫。感染蠕虫可堵塞人体的体液引流系统。dK9宋宝林医生

·         过敏性紫癜。这是一种可引起皮疹,腹部疼痛和关节痛的疾病。有时睾丸也可以红肿。它产生于免疫系统对触发器(通常是感染)的反应。多数过敏性紫癜患者是儿童。dK9宋宝林医生

·         过敏性皮疹。dK9宋宝林医生

·         皮肤结节病。是这样一种疾病,由于炎症,在你的身体多个部位,出现被称为肉芽肿的小肿块。通常它影响到肺,但偶尔发生在阴囊。dK9宋宝林医生

·         化脓性汗腺炎。这些是反复发作的皮肤疖疮。dK9宋宝林医生

何时求医dK9宋宝林医生

如果你发现你的阴囊有任何疼痛或肿胀,你总是应该去看医生。如果它是疼痛性的,你应该立即去求医。dK9宋宝林医生

有哪些可用于阴囊肿块或疼痛的检查项目?dK9宋宝林医生

你的医生会经常只是通过体检就能够判别这是什么样的肿胀。例如,他们可以通过你的阴囊照光,因为液体可以透光。或者,他们可能会要求你咳嗽,这会使疝更加明显。你通常会进行超声波扫描,以确定病因,并确定你是否需要治疗。超声波扫描是利用声波来产生你身体里器官和结构图像的一种无痛性检查。有时验血可能也有帮助。dK9宋宝林医生

阴囊肿块或肿块的治疗是什么?dK9宋宝林医生

治疗完全取决于病因。时常不需要治疗。其他时间 - 例如,睾丸扭转或睾丸癌急切需要治疗。总是需要看医生,向他咨询是否需要治疗。dK9宋宝林医生

 dK9宋宝林医生

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Scrotal Lumps/Pain/SwellingdK9宋宝林医生

There are many causes of lumps or pain in the scrotum. Most lumps are not cancer, and many are not serious. However you should always see a doctor if you have pain, or a lump in this area.dK9宋宝林医生

What is the scrotum?dK9宋宝林医生

The scrotum is a loose bag of skin which hangs behind the penis in men and boys. Inside it are the two testicles (testes). The testicles make the male hormone, testosterone, and produce sperm (semen). The sperm passes along ducts in the testes to a tube called the epididymis where it is stored. Sperm then passes through another tube called the vas deferens. The vas deferens carries the sperm to the penis.dK9宋宝林医生

Boys and men should get to know what their testes usually feel like, so they will know if something has changed.dK9宋宝林医生

What causes lumps or pain in the scrotum?dK9宋宝林医生

Swellings in the scrotum can be due to:dK9宋宝林医生

·         Extra fluid inside.dK9宋宝林医生

·         Abnormal tissue growing.dK9宋宝林医生

·         Normal tissue which has become swollen, inflamed, or hard.dK9宋宝林医生

What are the symptoms of scrotal lumps?dK9宋宝林医生

The symptoms depend on the cause of the problem. Possible symptoms include:dK9宋宝林医生

·         Noticing a lump which has not been there before.dK9宋宝林医生

·         A sudden pain.dK9宋宝林医生

·         A dull ache.dK9宋宝林医生

·         Redness or warmth of the skin of the scrotum.dK9宋宝林医生

·         The testicle (testis) or structures around it may be very tender.dK9宋宝林医生

·         Swelling of the scrotum.dK9宋宝林医生

·         Feeling sick (nauseated) or being sick (vomiting).dK9宋宝林医生

·         Having a temperature, passing urine more frequently, or pus or blood in the urine (if the cause is an infection).dK9宋宝林医生

Common causes of pain or painful lumps in the scrotumdK9宋宝林医生

Testicular torsiondK9宋宝林医生

When a testicle twists around in the scrotum, the condition is called torsion of the testis. An emergency operation is usually needed to treat this condition.dK9宋宝林医生

It most commonly occurs in teenage boys. Newborn babies and younger children sometimes develop this problem. It is uncommon over the age of 25 but does occur sometimes in older adults. The typical symptom is severe pain that develops quickly - within a few hours, often much more quickly. The pain is in the affected testis but you may also feel it in the middle of the tummy (abdomen). The affected testis soon becomes tender, swollen and inflamed.dK9宋宝林医生

Epididymo-orchitis and orchitisdK9宋宝林医生

Epididymo-orchitis is an inflammation of the epididymis and/or testis. Epididymitis means inflammation of the epididymis. Orchitis means inflammation of a testicle. It is usually due to infection, most commonly from a urine infection or a sexually transmitted infection. It can also happen in boys who get mumps. It is common in men aged 15-30 and in men aged over 60. It does not occur very often before puberty.dK9宋宝林医生

Symptoms usually develop quickly - over a day or so. The affected epididymis and testicle swell rapidly and the scrotum becomes enlarged, tender and red. It can be very painful. There may be other symptoms if the epididymo-orchitis is a complication from another infection. For example: pain on passing urine if you have a urine infection; a discharge from the penis if you have a urethral infection; etc. As with any infection, you may have a high temperature (fever) and feel generally unwell. A course of antibiotic medicine will usually clear the infection. Full recovery is usual. Complications are uncommon.dK9宋宝林医生

HaematoceledK9宋宝林医生

A haematocele is a collection of blood around the testicle. This is usually painful, and may have been caused by an injury.dK9宋宝林医生

Common causes of painless lumps in the scrotumdK9宋宝林医生

HydroceledK9宋宝林医生

A hydrocele is a collection of fluid in the scrotum.dK9宋宝林医生

Hydroceles vary greatly in size. Most hydroceles occur in adults and are most common in men aged over 40 years. Hydroceles are normally painless. Large hydroceles may cause discomfort because of their size. Some babies are born with a hydrocele. These usually improve without any treatment within the first year of life. An operation is usually only advised if the hydrocele persists after 12-18 months of age.dK9宋宝林医生

Inguinal herniadK9宋宝林医生

A hernia is a lump which occurs from a weakness in the wall of the tummy (abdomen). Males have a small tunnel in the tissues of their groins which occurred when they were developing as a baby. This tunnel allowed the testicles to come down from the abdomen into the scrotum. Tissue from the intestines can also pass into this tunnel, forming an inguinal hernia. If you have an inguinal hernia, a sausage-shaped lump may be felt from the groin to the scrotum. It may go away when you lie down. This is because the tissue slips back along the tunnel to where it should be.dK9宋宝林医生

Epididymal cyst/spermatoceledK9宋宝林医生

·         An epididymal cyst is a fluid-filled sac which grows at the top end of the testicle. It is benign (ie not caused by cancer).The lump can be felt separate from the testicle. Men are most likely to develop these cysts around the age of 40.dK9宋宝林医生

·         A spermatocele is a cyst which feels like an epididymal cyst but it is filled with sperm (semen).dK9宋宝林医生

VaricoceledK9宋宝林医生

A varicocele is a collection of enlarged (dilated) veins (blood vessels) in the scrotum. It occurs next to and above one testicle or both of the testicles. Varicoceles are common. About 1 in 7 men develop a varicocele - usually between the ages of 15 and 25. Varicoceles are usually painless and usually cause no symptoms.dK9宋宝林医生

Testicular cancerdK9宋宝林医生

Testicular cancer is a cancer that arises from a testicle. Fewer than 4 in 100 lumps in the scrotum turn out to be cancer. Around half of all cases occur in men under 35 but testicular cancer rarely occurs before puberty. In most cases, the first symptom noticed is a lump that develops on one testicle. The lump is often painless but some people notice some pain or discomfort coming from the affected testicle.dK9宋宝林医生

Uncommon causes of scrotal swellings or paindK9宋宝林医生

Other rare or less common causes include:dK9宋宝林医生

·         Squamous cell carcinoma. This is a cancer of the skin of the scrotum.dK9宋宝林医生

·         Generalised oedema. This occurs when there is too much fluid in the body as a whole.dK9宋宝林医生

·         Sebaceous cysts. These are non-cancerous lumps under the skin.dK9宋宝林医生

·         Syphilis. This is a sexually transmitted infection. It can sometimes cause soft lumps called gummas.dK9宋宝林医生

·         Roundworms. Infection with worms can block the drainage system of the body's fluids.dK9宋宝林医生

·         Henoch-Schönlein purpura. This is a condition that can cause a skin rash, tummy (abdominal) pain and joint pains. Sometimes the testicles can also become inflamed. It develops because of a reaction of the immune system to a trigger, commonly an infection. Most people who get Henoch-Schönlein purpura are children.dK9宋宝林医生

·         Allergic rashes.dK9宋宝林医生

·         Sarcoidosis. This is a condition where tiny lumps, known as granulomas, develop at various sites within your body due to inflammation. Usually it affects the lungs, but occasionally they happen in the scrotum.dK9宋宝林医生

·         Hidradenitis suppurativa. These are repeated (recurrent) boils of the skin.dK9宋宝林医生

When to seek medical advicedK9宋宝林医生

You should always see a doctor if you notice any pain or swelling in your scrotum. If it is painful, you should seek advice urgently.dK9宋宝林医生

What tests are used for scrotal lumps or pain?dK9宋宝林医生

Your doctor will often be able to tell what kind of swelling it is from just examining you. For example, they may shine a light through your scrotum as fluid will light up. Or they may ask you to cough which may make a hernia more obvious. You will usually have an ultrasound scan to be sure of the cause and to find out whether you need any treatment or not. An ultrasound scan is a painless test that uses sound waves to create images of organs and structures inside your body. Sometimes a blood test may be helpful too.dK9宋宝林医生

What is the treatment for scrotal lumps or swellings?dK9宋宝林医生

The treatment totally depends on the cause. Often no treatment at all is needed. Other times - for example, in testicular torsion or testicular cancer - treatment is needed urgently. Always see a doctor to get advice about whether treatment is needed or not.dK9宋宝林医生

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